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In Switzerland in the 1920s a system of responsibility marks for precious metal watch cases was introduced.
It is like a percentage sign % but with two zeros below the line indicating that the ratio is per thousand, rather than per hundred used for percentages.The name is derived from the name of the ancient people of Switzerland prior to the Roman conquest, the Helvetii.The female figure of Helvetia appeared during the development of a Swiss national identity in the nineteenth century, and Helvetia appeared on coins and stamps after the foundation of the federal state of Switzerland in 1848. Eighteen carats is exactly 75% or 750‰ gold, from 18 / 24 = 0.75.They were not used on watch cases, I don't think there was any Swiss national legal control over the fineness of gold or silver used in watch cases until the Precious Metals Control Act of 1880.Until 1880 Swiss gold watches were usually stamped with the gold fineness, usually 14 carats, a popular standard on the continent, and silver watches were often simply marked "Fine Silver" or "Argent Fin", an unspecified standard of fineness. This was not permitted for British made watches, the cuvette or "dome" had to be made of the same material as the rest of the case.